Hello reader! Welcome back to The Mechanical post. Today in this article we will see:
- What is a thermal power plant?
- The layout of the thermal power plant,
- Working of the thermal power plant,
- Advantages and limitations of a thermal power plant.
What is a Thermal power plant?
Construction of Thermal power plant
- Steam turbine.
- Cooling tower.
- Pumping system.
- Safety valve.
- Pressure measuring devices.
- Blowdown valves.
- Main steam stop valve.
- Feed check valves.
- Fusible plug.
- Water level indicator.
- Low-water alarm.
- Low water fuel cut-out.
- Boiler feedwater pump.
- Impulse turbine
- Reaction turbine
|By Mbeychok – Own work, Public Domain|
What is the main function of the condenser?
- To maintain a very low pressure or vacuum at the end of the turbine, so that the steam can expand as much as possible in the turbine. The more expansion, the more is the work obtained (i.e. electricity is produced)
- The other function of the condenser is to cool down the steam and convert it into water.
The pumping system of steam power plant
The pumping system of the power plant takes care of the transportation of the fluids in the power plant accordingly.
Working of Steam power plant
|By Milton Beychok (after John Pye) / CC BY-SA|
- Boilers mainly are coal-fired, however, oil and other types of fossil fuels are also used at some power stations.
- The feedwater pump feeds the water into the boiler. The water is converted into steam inside it.
- This steam is then carried and delivered to the turbine. The steam enters the turbine via a nozzle. The nozzle helps increase the velocity of the steam.
- The high-pressure steam passes over the vanes of the turbine exerting force on it. While passing over it the pressure of the steam reduces as its velocity increases. This causes the turbine to rotate at a high r.p.m. The turbine is coupled to a generator which produces electricity.
- The electricity produced is then step-up or step-down accordingly and distributed for industrial and domestic purposes.
- According to the load, the electricity production can be controlled by controlling the amount of steam entering through the nozzle. This is called as governing of the turbine.
- The steam then enters the condenser, where it is condensed and then further transported back to the boiler feed pump and the cycle goes on.
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Advantages of Steam power plant
- The cost of the generation of electricity and initial expense is less as compared to other methods. This is the reason due to which most of the world is powered by coal-powered steam power plants.
- Cheap coal can be used for heating.
- Unlike some other power stations like solar, wind, hydro or nuclear power plant which need to be constructed at specific locations, the steam power plant can be constructed anywhere with good water and fuel supply.
- The floor area required by the plant is less.
Disadvantages of Steam power plant
- Although the initial cost is low, its operating costs are high due to fuel and maintenance.
- The steam power plant has low overall efficiency.
- Due to the burning of large amounts of fossil fuels, steam power plants are one of the largest contributors to air pollution.
- Global warming is rising due to the burning of fuels.
- The nearby ecosystem is adversely affected.
What are the four basic components of a steam power plant?
How does a steam power plant work?
What kind of energy output is obtained from a “Steam power plant”?
That’s an overview of the Thermal power plant. If you like this post or have any suggestions do let us know in the comments we would love to hear from you.
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We’ll be back soon with another interesting article till then Keep learning and read The Mechanical post!